Download Free PDF notes of Diabetes Mellitus-

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Basic Cause and reason for Diabetes-

Diabetes mellitus is a disorder in which blood sugar (glucose) levels are abnormally high because the body does not produce enough insulin to meet its needs.

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
In type 1 diabetes (formerly called insulin-dependent diabetes or juvenile-onset diabetes), the body’s immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas, and more than 90% of them are permanently destroyed. The pancreas, therefore, produces little or no insulin. Only about 5 to 10% of all people with diabetes have type 1 disease. Most people who have type 1 diabetes develop the disease before age 30, although it can develop later in life.

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
In type 2 diabetes (formerly called non– insulin-dependent diabetes or adult-onset diabetes), the pancreas often continues to produce insulin, sometimes even at higher-than-normal levels, especially early in the disease. However, the body develops resistance to the effects of insulin, so there is not enough insulin to meet the body’s needs. As type 2 diabetes progresses, the insulin-producing ability of the pancreas decreases.

Complications of diabetes
(1) Brain, causing a stroke
(2) Eyes (diabetic retinopathy), causing blindness
(3) Heart, causing a heart attack
(4) Kidneys (diabetic nephropathy), causing chronic kidney disease
(5) Nerves (diabetic neuropathy), causing a decreased sensation in feet