“Inequalities in health outcomes in Canada are evident when we look at chronic health conditions, diabetes in particular. Aboriginal communities and lower-income people in Canada are at particularly high risk for developing a range of chronic health conditions including diabetes. Depending on the age group, First Nations adults are two to eight times more likely to have diabetes than Canadians generally, and they also have substantially higher rates of serious complications from diabetes, including kidney failure, foot amputations, heart disease and infectious disease. In this report, the Health Council profiles an initiative in northern Manitoba – the Island Lake Regional Renal Health Program – developed in response to the high rates of kidney failure in a remote First Nations region. And we take a look at the Kahnawake Schools Diabetes Prevention Program which, after 12 years of sustained effort, has put the brakes to the persistent increase in new cases of diabetes in that Mohawk First Nation community near Montreal. The connection between health and wealth is also important in understanding how to influence health outcomes. The poorest Canadians are almost three times as likely to have multiple chronic health conditions, including diabetes, as the highest-income Canadians, and the ratio steps down steadily as family income goes up.”–Page 12

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